What are carbohydrates Types of carbohydrates
What are carbohydrates?
All the carbohydrates are one of the main energy sources for our body.Carbohydrates are complex organic compounds.In our organism, carbohydrates are broken down into simpler compounds by hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is the interaction of carbohydrates and water.During this interaction, carbohydrates turn into glucose, fructose, and galactose.
GlucoseOur organism can easily assimilate glucose and turn it into glycogen.Glycogen is stored in the liver for quick use when needed.In small amounts, it can be stored in muscles, kidneys and even brain. In this case, glycogen is reconverted to glucose.For reconvertion, enzymes produced by our body are used.
Fructose is more difficult to assimilate than glucose, but it quicker turns into glycogen in the liver.Fructose is the sweetest of carbohydrates.That is why it is preferable to use this carbohydrate in diets.This dietary indispensable product helps to correct body weight.Fructose satisfies a person's tastes. Fructose also needs in case of low consumption of carbohydrates.
Galactose is a component of milk sugar or lactose.Under the influence of lactose yeast, it becomes fermented.Our liver easily converts galactose into glucose.
There are more complex carbohydrates:
Starch is a common food product.Its nutritional value is very high.Starch is converted into glucose in the human body by multiple sequential reactions.
Glycogen is a result of breaking down glucose, fructose and galactose.This carbohydrate is stored in the liver.
Inulin is complex carbohydrate that has a sweet taste. Inulin obtained from certain plants and used to replace sugar for people with sugar diabetes.
Pectin substances are present in plant foods.They have valuable gelling properties. Pectin captures toxic products of food processing in the intestine and produce substances that can not be absorbed by the intestinal tract. That is why they clean the body.Interacting with the digestive environment of the intestine, pectin makes it more acidic.This improves the intestinal flora by killing pathogenic microbes.Cellulose.As for the chemical composition, it is similar to polysaccharides. Coarse cellulose is not digested.However, more delicate cellulose can exist in the soluble state.It is very useful for intestinal vermiculation.Cellulose has a very important function which is utilization of cholesterol from the body.Sucroseconsists of glucose and fructose.In everyday life, it is simple sugar beet or cane sugar.It is easily dissolve in water.It is widely used in human nutrition.Lactoseis a carbohydrate present in dairy products.Lactose contains glucose and galactose.It is used for making medicine.Lactose very actively promotes the increase of cholesterol in the blood.
The impact of carbohydrates on the body is well-studied.Some nutritionists recommend definite norms of carbohydrates consumption.
If you consume fewer carbohydrates than the body needs, it exhausts the supply of carbohydrates in the liver.The liver begins to process fat and proteins to get energy.This leads to defects in the liver work and, subsequently, causes a serious illness lipoatrophy of the liver.
The whole body is slowly poisoned by harmful products of incomplete fat and protein splitting.In addition, it is harmful to use excessive amounts of carbohydrates.The organism has to convert carbohydrates into fat. For this purpose, the pancreas produces insulin.In a healthy organism
pancreas regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. The excess of carbohydrates in the blood leads to insulin level increase.The pancreas is gradually exhausted and, eventually, diseases of carbohydrate metabolism develop.Besides, the excess of fat deposits leads to heart disease.
To function normally the organism needs a well-balanced diet.The amount of consumed carbohydrates should correspond to their consumption
for person's physical, mental and emotional activities.
Each person consumes a different amount of carbohydrates with a food. It is important to consider the carbohydrates content in the food and individual characteristic when diet is established.
To learn the content of carbohydrates in foods you need to check glycemic index.What does it mean?It is an index of the influence of carbohydrates in the eaten product on blood sugar levels.The glycemic index of glucose is 100.
Many fruits and vegetables have low glycemic index.High glycemic index is characteristic of potatoes, boiled corn, baked goods, and dates.However, this does not mean that such valuable products should be excluded from the diet.In addition to the glycemic index, there are other indicators of food value. Together with the glycemic index they give a characterization of the optimal consumption of food for various diets.